I said when I started this blog that I would write about some cool IOS-XR stuff that I’d been learning, and I’ve totally 100% failed to do that yet. So here we go!
I’m going to use this post to basically just annotate a cleaned up RPL that I’m using at a current customer. The following RPL is being used at the Internet edge at their peering to ISPs. This customer is actually a colo, so it’s maybe a bit different from you’d see at a typical enterprise.
route-policy RPL_[ISP1]_Inbound apply RPL_Deny_Bogons apply RPL_All_Provider_Inbound apply RPL_[ISP1]_All_Prefixes apply RPL_[ISP1]_Provider_Local_Prefixes end-policy
Hah! Look easy as that, just name route-policies something that sounds like it would do something cool, then it magically does it!! Okay, more seriously, route-policies can easily call other route-policies. The whole approach is far more programatic than in ‘regular’ IOS. Lets take a look at the first RPL that we are calling ‘RPL_Deny_Bogons’ which does as you would suspect — denies bogons in incoming BGP updates (shouldn’t have any, but just in case!):
route-policy RPL_Deny_Bogons if destination in PS_Bogons then drop else pass endif end-policy
So obviously this is way different from IOS. As I said, it’s basically just programing what you want to do. IF/THEN statements are now your friend! In this policy, IF the destination is in prefix-set (XR prefix list syntax), THEN ‘drop.’ Drop is of course the same as deny. ELSE, as in if prefixes do not match the IF statement, pass, which does as expected also — passes the prefixes on for further examination.
For reference, here is what a prefix-set looks like in XR:
prefix-set PS_Bogons 0.0.0.0/0, 0.0.0.0/8 le 32, 10.0.0.0/8 le 32, 127.0.0.0/8 le 32, 169.254.0.0/16 le 32, 172.16.0.0/12 le 32, 192.0.0.0/24 le 32, 192.0.2.0/24 le 32, 192.168.0.0/16 le 32, 198.18.0.0/15 le 32, 198.51.100.0/24 le 32, 203.0.113.0/24 le 32, 18.104.22.168/4 le 32 end-set
Moving onto our next called policy ‘RPL_All_Provider_Inbound’; this is a generic type policy to be applied to all provider peering sessions. The intent here is to strip any inbound communities (which I believe does not apply to well-known communities) from prefixes, then apply a community that can be used internally to reference any provider learned prefixes. Finally, the local-preference is set to 90. This last bit is just to ensure that routes learned via colo customers are preferred locally instead of from providers (even though AS-path *should* take care of this — just in case!!).
route-policy RPL_All_Provider_Inbound delete community all set community COMM_Any_Provider additive set local-preference 90 pass end-policy
This one doesn’t show us much of the ‘programatic’ style of XR, but does show that it is pretty easy to understand if you are used to route-maps in IOS. Community-lists are also pretty similar to IOS, here’s an example as used above:
community-set COMM_Any_Provider 1:1 end-set
Wrapping up the policies, these last two assign communities to all routes learned form a particular provider, and another community to routes local to the provider (Provider ASN + 1 hop). The logic for these are just to allow as much granularity in matching prefixes as possible in as simple a possible way in the future.
route-policy RPL_[ISP1]_All_Prefixes set community COMM_[ISP1]_All_Prefixes additive pass end-policy ! route-policy RPL_[ISP1]_Provider_Local_Prefixes if as-path in AS_[ISP1]_Local then set community COMM_[ISP1]_Provider_Local additive pass endif end-policy
Pretty cut and dry here. Note that the ‘additive’ keyword is just like IOS, use that if you don’t want to overwrite all the communities on a prefix. The second policy above matches an as-path just like you can in a route-map. Heres a basic as-path-set:
as-path-set AS_[ISP1]_Local ios-regex '^65535_[0-9]*$’ end-set
Above we just match an AS-path of ’65535’ plus one hop (as an example). RPLs also give some cool functionality such as matching a prefix that ‘passes-through’ an ASN. You can also match things inline — instead of calling prefix-sets etc. Hopefully I will get to write about some more of that later!